jhum cultivation || ya jhoom khetee

jhum cultivation || ya jhoom khetee, bhaarat ke poorvottar raajyon jaise arunaachal pradesh, meghaalay, mijoram aur naagaalaind mein aur aadi khagaraachaaree aur silahat jaise baanglaadesh ke aadivaasee samoohon dvaara prachalit krshi aur slais ke lie ek sthaaneey naam hai. is pranaalee mein aag ya spasht pheling lagaakar bhoomi ke ek tukade ko saaph karana aur krshi mahatv kee phasalon jaise ki chaaval, sabjiyon ya phalon kee khetee ke lie kshetr ka upayog karana shaamil hai. kuchh chakron ke baad, bhoomi urvarata kho detee hai aur ek naya kshetr chuna jaata hai.

 

jhum cultivation

haasy kee khetee, jise slesh aur jala krshi ke roop mein bhee jaana jaata hai, pahale pedon aur vanaspatiyon kee bhoomi ko saaph karane aur usake baad unhen jalaane kee prakriya hai. jalee huee mittee mein potaash hota hai jo mittee kee poshak saamagree ko badhaata hai. poorvottar bhaarateey raajyon arunaachal pradesh, meghaalay, mijoram aur naagaalaind mein samooh aur baanglaadeshee jile rangaamaatee, khagaraachaaree, bandaraban aur silahat mein slaish-end-barn krshi ka ullekh hai. jhoom ya jhoom khetee ke roop mein tribel logo ki Traditional parampara hei.।

tripura mein jhoom khetee

jhoom khetee, jise shiphting khetee ke roop mein bhee jaana jaata hai, krshi paddhati ka ek svadeshee tareeka hai jahaan aadivaasee kisaan ek ke baad ek kaee vanaspatiyon ke lie ek hee bhoomi ka upayog karate hain. jhum cultivation is takaneek ka paalan mukhy roop se pahaadee janajaatiyon dvaara kiya jaata hai, jo vyaapak khetee ke lie samatal bhoomi ke adhikaaree nahin hain. ve chaar ya adhik phasalon ke lie bhoomi ka upayog karenge aur jo khaad ve upayog karate hain vah ya to pashu khaad ya paudhe ke ark honge. jhoom khetee tripura kee pahaadiyon mein krshi ke sabase saamaany roopon mein se ek hai. aaj vaigyaanik jhoom khetee ko paryaavaran kee drshti se vinaashakaaree aur doshapoorn bhoomi upayog pratha ko bahut kam aautaput-inaput anupaat ke roop mein dekhate hain. isalie janajaatiyon ko sarakaaree star par aur vibhinn sthaaneey gair-sarakaaree sangathanon dvaara is puraanee pratha ke andhere paksh par shikshit kiya ja raha hai.

tripura ke jhumiya

aadivaasee jo shiphting khetee ka abhyaas karate hain, unhen “jhumiya” ke naam se jaana jaata hai. jyaadaatar tripura kee reenag janajaati ne bade paimaane par jhoom phasal ka abhyaas kiya. tripura mein 10,039 hekteyar se adhik bhoomi jhoom khetee ke adheen hai. 1955 mein, yah anumaan lagaaya gaya tha ki tripura mein 25,000 jhumiya parivaar the aur jhoom khetee ke tahat kul bhoomi 16, 00,000 ekad thee. 1949 ke baad, jab bangalaadesh se bangal log tripura kee maidane bhomi kee or palayan karate the, jhumiyan apane jhom khetee kee sabjiyaan aur chaaval unhen bahut kam keemat par becha karatee theen aur isake kaaran gareeb janajaatiyon ka shoshan hota tha. varshon se jhoom khetee mein parivartan dekha gaya hai – bhoomi kee upalabdhata mein kamee aaee hai; jhoom khetee ko kam karane ke lie agranee aur isase aay mein giraavat aaee. sarakaar ne jhoomiyon ko rabad ke baagaanon aur any khetee mein sthaanaantarit karane ke lie kaee vyavasthaen kee hain. us sthiti mein, ab in aadivaasiyon kee aarthik prshthabhoomi mein rabar ke baagaanon dvaara sudhaar kiya jaata hai aur prakrti kee raksha ke lie jhum cultivation ya jhoom khetee ko kam se kam kiya jaata hai.

jhoom khetee kee prakriya

ise adhik upayukt roop se “slaish aur barn” khetee kaha jaata hai. isake lie pahaadee upalon ko unake vanaspati aavaran se saaph kiya jaata hai, jisamen aag lagaee jaatee hai, aur dhaan, kapaas, mirch, makka, til aur sabjiyon jaisee kaee phasalon kee buaee kee jaatee hai. phasal ke baad varsh ke vibhinn samay aur jhoom ke kheton mein paripakv hotee hain. jhumiya khetee ke lie nae jhum sthalon par jaate hain.

bahut samay pahale, tripura mein jhoom khetee ka saarvabhaumik roop se abhyaas kiya gaya tha. 2 se 3 saal kee phasal ke baad, bhoomi apanee urvarata kho detee hai. paratee bhoomi mein vanaspati paratee avadhi ke dauraan punarjeevit ho jaatee hai. lagabhag 15 varshon ke baad jab paratee bhoomi urvarata praapt karatee hai, to kisaan phir se jhoom phasal ke lie vaapas aa jaata hai. khetee se lekar girane tak aur vaapas khetee karane tak ke is chakr ko ek poorn jhoom chakr ke roop mein jaana jaata hai.

jhum kalteeveshan ke kaaran paryaavaraneey samasyaen

 van kshetron ke jalane aur jalane se vanaspati ka praakrtik santulan kam ho jaata hai. yah praathamik van ko jhaadee ke dviteeyak vudalaind mein badalata hai. yah seedhe vanyajeev aur vanaspatiyon-jeevon ke santulan ko prabhaavit karata hai. phir se jab bhoomi varshon ke lie banjar rah jaatee hai, to bhaaree baarish ke kaaran mittee ke khanij bahut kharaab ho jaate hain, jisase mittee kharaab ho jaatee hai. isase bhoomi kee sthalaakrti nasht ho jaatee hai.

jhum cultivation ya jhoom khetee ke baad aadivaasee logon kee sthiti

jangalon kee mittee ke kataav aur ksharan ko niyantrit karane ke lie, sarakaar ne jhumiya ko any krshi paddhatiyon mein sthaanaantarit karane ke lie kuchh upaay kie hain taaki unake jeevan ko praapt kiya ja sake. sabase lokapriy mein se ek 1963 ke dauraan shuroo kie gae rabar ke baagaan the. jhumiyon ko shikshit kiya gaya aur jhoom khetee ke dushprabhaavon ko samajha gaya. tab ve tripura ke rabar nigam mein kaaryarat the aur rabar plaanteshan aur leteks prosesing ke lie prashikshit the. sarakaar ne jhumiyon ko bhojan aur kapada aur maasik vanshavrddhi pradaan kee hai taaki ve behatar jeevan jee saken aur unhen ab aur peechhe nahin hatana padega. jhoom khetee chhodane ke lie rabar, naarangee, anaanaas aur kaajoo kee khetee ke alaava jhoomiyon ke bhee behatar vikalp the. haalaanki, kaee raajaneetik aur vitteey muddon ke kaaran, jab rabar ke baagaan ko baajaar mein achaanak dubakee ke kaaran sankat ka saamana karana pada, to gareeb jhumiyon ne niraashaajanak sangharsh kiya. jhum kroping ko rokane ke lie unake paas saal bhar ke lie paryaapt bhojan nahin tha, aur unhen rabar plaanteshan ke lie uchit vetan bhee nahin milega. isase sarakaar ke khilaaph bahut hinsa huee. haalaanki, samay ke saath sthiti mein sudhaar hua aur ab sarakaar jhumiya kee ek ujjaval bhavishy kee sambhaavana par dhyaan kendrit kar rahee hai.

behatar jhoom khetee

jhumiya ke jeevan ko aur adhik aaraamadaayak banaane ke lie, sarakaar ne ek behatar jhum kroping takaneek bhee pesh kee. isamen kaee behatar raasaayanik urvarakon ka istemaal mittee ke lie kiya ja raha hai aur isalie pahalee phasal ke baad banjar kshetr ko khetee ke lie phir se istemaal kiya ja sakata hai. is prakaar jhoom chakr kee avadhi kam ho jaatee hai aur choonki khet banjar nahin honge isalie mittee ka kataav aur vanon kee kataee nahin hogee. agar jhumiya jameen ke ek hee bhookhand se baar-baar vanaspati praapt kar sakate hain to ve aur adhik jangalon ko nahin kaatenge. jhumiya ko behatar phasal dene ke lie behatar beej upalabdh karae jaate hain. isalie paaramparik jhoom khetee ko prakrti ke sanrakshan ke lie behatar tareeke se nahin khoya aur sanrakshit kiya ja raha hai.

Updated: January 28, 2020 — 10:40 am

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